Friday, 22 May 2020

Use of Non-Finites

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(B) Use of Non-Finites (Infinitives, Gerunds, Participles) 

Use of Non-Finites

Three Kinds of Non-Finites
1.       The Infinitives
2.       The Gerunds
3.       The participles

The Infinitives:
a.       Bare-Infinitive (Plain Infinitive or Infinitive without 'to' )

1.       Monty made the child  (Smile).
Ans. Monty made the child smile.

2.       She can      ( Understand ) many Asian languages.
Ans. She can understand many Asian languages.

3.       The teacher let him       (sit) there.
Ans. The teacher let him sit there.

4.       How dare you     ( open ) my bag ?
Ans. How dare you open my bag ?

5.       The coach made the players  ( Play ).
Ans. The coach made the players play .

b.      To – Infinitives

1.       Raj will be able   ( Swim ) very soon.
Ans. Raj will be able to swim very soon.

2.       Tourists are asked        ( not feed ) the animals.
Ans. Tourists are asked not to feed the animals.

3.       You ought  ( go ) today.
Ans. You ought to go today.

4.       It is easy     ( make ) mistakes.
Ans. It is easy to make mistakes.

5.       This dress is so simple   ( wear ) at the function.
Ans. This dress is so simple to wear at the function.

Gerund:
The gerund has verb+ing form.

1.       He is afraid of     ( tell ) the truth.
Ans. He is afraid of telling the truth.

2.       I hate ( tell ) lies.
Ans. I hate telling lies.

3.       Fans enjoy ( see ) a good match.
Ans. Fans enjoy seeing a good match.

4.       Avoid         ( eat ) sweets.
Ans. Avoid eating sweets.

5.       What about         ( take ) a cup of tea ?
Ans. What about taking a cup of tea ?

The Participles:
a).     The Present Participles ( verb+ing, represent an action which is going on).

1.       My mother is       ( prepare ) a cake for my birthday.
Ans. My mother is preparing a cake for my birthday.

2.       The train for Goa is      ( leave ) tonight.
Ans. The train for Goa is leaving tonight.

b).     Past Participles ( 3rd form of verb. It express the completed action ).

1.       The Patient left the hospital completely    (cure)
Ans. The Patient left the hospital completely cured .

2.       She found the doors     (lock).
Ans. She found the doors locked.

c).      The Perfect Participle ( It is formed by putting 'having' before the past participle ).

1.       The servant stole some money. He wanted to hide it somewhere.
Ans. Having stolen some money, the servant wanted to hide it somewhere.

2.       Naresh finished his home work. He went out to play.
Ans. Having finished his homework, Naresh went out to play.




Exercise
1. This mango is fit…… (eat).    (Fill in the blank with an infinitive)
1. This mango is fit to eat.

2. …………(err) is human.  (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
2. To err is human.

3. ………….(hear) a noise, I turned round (Fill up the blank with a participle)
3. Hearing a noise, I turned round.

4. I saw the storm……….. (approach) (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
4. I saw the storm approaching.

 5…………  (hunt) deer is not allowed in this area. (Fill up the blank with a Gerund) 
5. Hunting deer is not allowed in this area

6. Children love…………….(make) mud castles. (Fill up the blank with Gerund) 
6. Children love making mud castles.

 7. There is no one………….(challenge) this claim. (Fill up the blank with an Infinitive)
7. There is no one to challenge this claim.

8........... (toil) is the lot of mankind. (Fill up the blank with an' infinitive)
8. To toil is the lot of mankind.

9. Combine the following sentences using an Infinitive.
 (a) He went to Amritsar.
(b) He wanted to visit the Golden Temple.
9. He went to Amritsar to visit the Golden Temple.

10. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a) I speak the truth.
(b)I am not afraid of it.
10. I am not afraid of speaking the truth.

11. …………I candle fell off the table. (burn) (Fill up the blank with a participle)
11. A burning candle fall off the table.

12. He kit the tap (run). (Fill up the blank with a participle)
12. He left the tap running.

13. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a) He had resolved on a certain course.
(b) He acted with vigour.
13. Having resolved on a certain course, he acted with vigour.

 14. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a) They had no fodder.
(b) They could give the cow nothing to eat.
14. Having no fodder, they could give the cow nothing to eat.



15. Success is not merely (win) applause. (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
15. Success is not merely winning applause.

16. ………………….(amass) wealth often ruins the health. (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
16. Amassing wealth often ruins the health.

17. The ability………………… (laugh) is peculiar to mankind. (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
17. The ability to laugh is peculiar to mankind.

18. Can you hope………………..  (count) the stars ?  (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
18. Can you hope to count the stars?

19. Combine the following sentences using a Participle.
(a) I call a spade a spade.
(b) l am not afraid of it.
19. I am not afraid of calling a spade a spade.

20. She comes........ me every day. (see) (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
20. She comes to see me every day.

21. The man seems…………… (worry).  (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
21. The man seems worried.

22. We had a drink of the (sparkle) water.
(Fill up the blank with a Participle)
22. We had a drink of the sparkling water.

23. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a) The stable door was open.
 (b) The horse was stolen.
23. The horse was stolen by opening the stable room.

24. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a) We met a man.
(b) He was carrying a log of wood.
24. We met a man carrying a log of wood.

25. We were prevented from……………. (enter) the house.
(Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
25. We were prevented from entering the house.

26. I heard her……… (sing) at the function. (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
26. I heard her singing at the function.

27. He is slow (forgive). (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
27. He is slow to forgive.

28. I am sorry (hear) this. (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
28. I am sorry to hear this.

29. Combine the following sentences using an Infinitive.
(a) He collects old stamps even at great expense.
(b) It is his hobby.
29. His hobby is to collect old stamps even at great expense.

30. Combine the following into a single sentence
(a) I have no aptitude for business.
(b) I must speak out frankly.
30. Frankly speaking, I have no aptitude for business.

31. …………..(Run) water is not always fit for drinking. (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
31. Running water is not always fir for drinking.

32. .... ... (Carry) by the wind, seeds are scattered far an) wide. (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
32. Carried by the wind, seeds are scattered far and wide.

33. Combine the following sentences using a participle:
(a) He was dissatisfied. .
(b) He resigned his post.
33. Being dissatisfied, he resigned his post.

34. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a))We met a girl.
(b) She was carrying a basket of flowers.
34. We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.

35. He is fond of…………… (swim) (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
35. He is fond of swimming.

36. Are you afraid of his……………… (hear) you? (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
36. Are you afraid of hearing you?

37. I have come…………… (see) you. (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
37. I have come to see quick to understand the point.

38. He was quick…………… (understand) the point. (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
39. Combine the following sentences using an Infinitive.
 (a) He bas five children.
(b) He must provide for them.
39. He has five children to provide for.

40. Combine the following into a single sentence
 (a) He wants to earn his livelihood.
 (b) He works hard for his reason.
40. He works hard to earn his livelihood.

41. I saw him……….. (enter) the house. (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
41. I saw him entering the house.

42. He played a…………….. (lose) game. (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
42. He played a losing game.

43. Combine the following sentences using a participle.
(a) He staggered back.
(b) He sank to the ground.
43. Staggering back, he sank to the ground.

 44. She is very keen modelling………………… (take up) (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
44. She is very keen to take up modelling.

45. What she hates most is………… (smoke). (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
45. What she hates most is smoking?

46. He objected to money on cosmetics………….. (spend). (Fill up the blank with a Gerund).
46. He objected to spending money on cosmetics.

47. It is a penal offence…………… (bribe) a public servant. (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
47. It is a penal offence to bribe a public servant.

48. The boys are anxious…………… (learn) (Fill up the blank with an infinitive)
48. The boys are anxious to learn.

49. Combine the following sets of sentences using Infinitives.
(i) (a) The strikers held a meeting.
(b) They wished to discuss the terms of the employers.
ii. (a) The robber took out a knife.
(b) He wanted to frighten the old man.
49. The strikers held a meeting to discuss the terms of the employers.

50. …………. (Consider) the facts, he received scant justice. (Fill up the blank with a Participle)
50. Considering the fact, he received scant justice.

51. Combine the following sentences using a Participle.
 (a) He walked away.
(b) He was whistling.
51. Walking away, he was whistling.

52. My hair needs……… (cut) (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
52. My hair needs cutting.

53. I saw him……………(cross) the road. (Fill up the blank with a Gerund)
53. I saw him crossing the road.