Thursday, 3 October 2019

SOME GLIMPSES OF ANCIENT INDIAN THOUGHT AND PRACTICES

0 comments

SOME GLIMPSES OF ANCIENT INDIAN THOUGHT AND PRACTICES



LANGUAGE EXERCISES

A. Comprehension Questions
(i) Answer the following questions:

1. What caused desperation to the gods?
Ans. The god and demons were at war. In this war the demons had the upper hand. The gods realized that they were losing the battle. This caused desperation to them.

2. Who did the gods go to in desperation?
Ans. The god went to Lord Vishnu to seek his advice and help when they were in a desperation.

3. What did the Lord advise them?
Ans. Lord Vishnu advised the gods to make a mighty sword from the bones of holy saint. This would be their invulnerable weapon and they would be able to defeat the demons.

4.. What was the sacrifice of saint Dadhichi?
Ans. Saint Dadhichi offered the bones of his body to the gods so that they might make a powerful weapon with them. This was his great sacrifice.

1.     What is the real spirit behind the yajnas performed in our homes?
Ans.  We perform the yajans in our homes in the spirit of charity, renunciation, sacrifice and detachment. We want to rise above attraction of the world. 

2.     What does the tradition of feeding birds and animals prove?
Ans. The tradition of feeding birds and animals proves that the people of India believe in the unity of life and regard the entire universe as one family.

3.     Why did some scholars laugh at Ashtavakara?
Ans. Ashtavakara was handicapped person. He had a deformed body and looked very ugly. So some scholar laughed at him.

4.     How did Ashtavakara react?
Ans. Ashtavakara became very angry. He said that they were skinners because they measured the value of everything by its skin or colour and not by intrinsic to be present at a meeting of such people.

5.     What did Vivekananda say to the lady who laughed at his simple dress?
Ans. Vivekananda said that in the country of the lady, man was made by tailor. But in India, a man’s greatness was judged by his intrinsic worth and character.

6.     What was the status of women in the ancient India?
Ans. Women were held in high esteem in ancient India. They were worshipped like goddesses. No function or ceremony was considered auspicious without participation of a woman. Woman was enjoyed a high status in ancient India.

7.     Why did Shivaji bow his head before the woman who was brought to him as a gift?
Ans. Shivaji knew that this woman was being humiliated by his soldiers. He had great respect for every woman. He hated the idea of accepting a woman as a gift. So to restore her honour and dignity, he bowed to her.

8.     Why, according to you, were the wars fought in the Mahabharata and Ramayana sacred?
Ans. The wars, mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabaharata, were fought because Sita and Draupadi were insulted and humiliated. The wars were fought to restore their honour and dignity and to give all women a status of respect and equality with men. So those were scarted wars.

13. What does Lord Rama’s meeting with a Bheel woman and eating the tasted berries show?
Ans. Lord Rama, who was the son of a king, met a Bheel woman. He ate the tasted berries offered to him by that woman. This shows that in those days, people of all castes or creeds mixed freely with each other. There was no discrimination on the basis of caste or creed or profession.

(i)                Answer the following in about 50 words each:

1.     Why, according to the author, should those people be ashamed of themselves who believe in female foeticide?
Ans. Those people who believe in female foeticide are enemies of the human race. They are sinners, Killers and murderers of the mother of mankind. There is no rhyme or reason in their wicked thoughts. So they should be ashamed of female foeticide. 

2.     How does the author support the idea of the victory of the good over the evil?
Ans. The demons were doers of evil. They harmed others with their wicked deeds. The author describes the story of the war between demons and gods and the sacrifice made by a great sage called Dadhichi for the sake of good on the earth. The gods were victorious and the demons were defeated. Thus, through this story, the author supports the idea of the victory of the good over the evil.
3.     What is the basic difference between the position of women in society in the ancient times and now?
Ans. In ancient times, women were given great respect in society. There was no auspicious function to which they were not invited. Woman was regarded as the mother of mankind and worshipped like a goddess. In modern Indian society, some women hold high positions while others work as salves in their homes. The incidents of dowry-killings and female foeticides show that women are not getting their due regard in the modern society.

4.     What does the practice of ‘langar’ stand for? Explain.
Ans. At a langar, meals are shared among hundreds of men and women. They dine together in the simplest possible way. They eat and drink the same articles of food. This gives them the great idea of equality, love, brotherhood and fellow-feeling. This also teaches them that they should eat only have shared their meals with others.

5.     Give an example to prove that in ancient India, there was no discrimination on the basis of caste.
Ans. Lord Rama, who was the son of a king, took tasted berries from a Bheel woman and ate them. This woman belonged to a low caste. He had no hesitation to bring himself down to the level of this woman. This incident proves that in ancient India, there was no discrimination on the basis of caste.

B. Vocabulary Exercises
(i) Pick out the odd word which is not a synonym of the word given in italics in each set and put a circle around it.

demon:            devil, angel, fiend, imp
sage :               intellectual, mystic, spirit, guru
victory :           defeat, conquest, triumph, win
faith :              confidence, trust, belief, perception
auspicious :     holy, important, promising, impure
sacred :        blessed, secular, holy, revered



(ii) Add prefixes to the given words to form their antonyms:
easy                                 available                                  respect                           justice
wise                                auspicious                               proper                            separable
equal                               guide                                      honour                           sufficient

Ans. uneasy                   unavailable                              disrespect                      injustice
         unwise                     inauspicious                               proper                            separable
         equal                    guide                                         honour                        sufficient


(iii) Look at the following sentences:
1.     This idea of distribution applies not to food only; it extends well up to the entire resources and funds that are available to man.

2.     “Madam, in your country, it is the tailor who makes a man; in my country it is the intrinsic worth and character of a person that make him or her great.”

3.     This only proves that a woman in this great land was never looked upon as an object of lust or sex; she was always considered a devi.

Do you notice the semicolon (;) in these sentences? When two independent clauses are linked without any conjunction between them; a semicolon is inserted. We use a comma after the first independent clause when we link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions : and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. For example:
I am going home, and I intend to stay there. (comma) I am going home; I intend to stay there. (semi coloum)

Each of the following sentences needs either a comma or a semicolon. Choose the correct punctuation mark:

1. Satish has given up smoking about five times, but he cannot break the habit.

2. Our dog seems to have a built-in alarm clock; he wakes us up at exactly the same time every morning.

3. The passengers on the plane were alarmed, but the pilot and the crew kept their calm.

4. I realized at once that something was wrong; I was not, however, the only person who was concerned.

5. I had to complete the assignment by Sunday, otherwise, I would have failed the course.

6. Ram decided to be a doctor, but he changed his mind after he heard of the fees of the medical college.

7. I finished reading Freedom At Midnight, and then I went to bed.

8. The air was beautifully clear; it was a lovely day.

C. Grammar Exercises
(i) Fill in the blanks using the modals might, should or must:

1.     Your friend said you didn’t need to buy her anything for her birthday, but (insistence) you must at least get her some flowers.

2. Anju said she was really busy this week, but I think she might show up at the party if she doesn’t have to work overtime.

3. My husband said he would come over right after work, so he might be here by 6:00.

4. Don’t move her. She might be having some internal injuries because of the accident.

5. You must be joking!

6. Your trip to Europe must have been absolutely fascinating!

7. You should, not worry so much. Your father will be all right.

8. The doctor says that you should, use gloves to avoid skin irritations.

9. Your shopping at The Mall might, cost you a fortune.

(ii) Choose the correct preposition:

1. He swore by, God that he was innocent. (by/in)

2. It was a fight between, the gods and the demons. (in/between)

3. They live under, the same roof. (below/under)

4. They will do it with, pleasure. (with/in)

5. Divide the food between, the two boys. (between/among)

6. There is no truth in, what she just said. (in/about)

7. She stood leaning against, the wall. (on/against)

8. She pushed the letter under, the door. (under/below)

9. The boys ran across, the road. (across/through)

10. Climb up, the tree to get the mangoes. (on/up)



(iii) Fill in the blanks with the suitable articles:


Once upon a time there was an old woman who lived in a little house. She had in her
garden a bed of beautiful striped tulips. One night she was awakened by the sounds of sweet singing of birds and the sound of some babies laughing. She looked out of the window. The sounds seemed to come from the tulip bed, but she could see nothing. The next morning she walked among her flowers, but there were no signs of any one having been there the night before. On the Following night she was again awakened by the same sounds. She rose and stole softly through her garden. The moon was shining brightly on the tulip bed, and the flowers were swaying to and fro. The old woman looked closely and saw, standing by each tulip, a little Fairy mother who was crooning and rocking the flower like A cradle, while in each tulip cup lay a Little Fairy baby laughing and playing. The good old woman stole quietly back to her house, and from that time on she never picked the tulip, nor did she allow her neighbours to touch the flowers.

D. Pronunciation Practice
Check up the pronunciation of the following words in the dictionary and say them aloud:
Sauce                clerk                   debris
Yak                   swan                   chew
butcher             ballet                   demon
monk                yacht                  example
canal                 balcony              thoroughly
Don’t you think you should learn some phonetic symbols to be able to read the correct pronunciation of words from the dictionary?

E. Creative Writing and Extended Reading
1. Consult your teacher and read the original books that contain the incidents referred to in the lesson.

2. Write a paragraph on any one of the following:
i. Importance of Charity in Life.
ii. Status of Women in Ancient India.
iii. The Idea of the World Being a Big Family.

3. India is said to be a country of rich values and noble thoughts. How? Discuss.

4. Ask the Humanities Forum of your school to organize a Declamation Contest on the following subjects:
i. Status of Women in India – Past and Present
ii. The More You Give, the More You Get
iii. Virtue is its Own Reward
iv. The Pleasure of Sharing Food and Resources with Others
v. A Man is Great not by Caste or Birth, but by his Intrinsic Worth
vi. Woman – The Mother of Mankind

5. Relate, in your own words, any 2 stories from your study of the ancient Indian scriptures that convey the ideas of sacrifice, renunciation and charity.

Just a little fun:
There was a young lady of Crete,
Who was so exceedingly neat,
When she got out of bed
She stood on her head,
To make sure of not soiling her feet
 


.










    (Very Short Q/A)


1. There was a fight between the ………………….and the gods.

Ans:- demons


2. In desperation the gods went to ………………………...

Ans:- Lord Vishnu


3. Who had a deformed body?

Ans:- Ashtavakra


4. Who sacrificed his life to give the gods a mighty sword?

Ans:- Saint Dadhichi


5. Who laid down their lives by choosing to be bricked alive?

Ans:- Guru Gobind Singh’s sons.


6. A woman was always considered a Devi.                                         = False

(15-20WORDS)


1. What caused desperation to gods?

Ans:- The demons were winning the fight. This caused desperation to gods.


2. Who did the gods go in desperation?

Ans:- The gods went to Lord Vishnu.


3. What did Lord Vishnu advise them?

Ans:- Lord Vishnu advised them to get a mighty sword prepared from the bones of some great sage.


4. .What was the sacrifice of saint Dadhichi?

Ans:- Saint Dadhichi sacrificed his life to give the gods a mighty sword prepared from his bones.


5. Why did some scholars laugh at Ashtavakra?

Ans:- Some scholars laughed at Ashtavakra because he had a deformed body.


6. What was the status of women in ancient India?

Ans:- Women enjoyed a very high status. Their participation was needed in every function.



                        TRANSLATION

118. This does not belong to me.
118. ies dw sMbMD myry nwl nhIN hY [
119. The entire universe is one family.
119. pUrw ivSv ie~k pirvwr hY [
120. Ashtavakra thundered back to the king.
120. AStvkr ny aultw grjdI Avwz ivc rwjy nUM ikhw [
121. This put the entire assembly to shame.
121. ies ny swrI sBw nUM SrimMdw kr id~qw[